Bokkon István



Bokkon István

Research fellow/kutatási munkatárs

Other institutional involvements:

  • Professor at Vision Research Institute (USA, nonprofit) (2012–)
  • Lecturer at Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church, Psychology Department (Hungary) (2014-)
  • PhD (absolutorium) Studies in Pharmacology, Semmelweis University (2006-2011)
  • Chemical and bioengineer, Technical University of Budapest (1993)
  • Member of Hungarian Biochemical and Biophysical Society
  • Member of European Biophysical Societies’ Association
  • Member of the Editorial Advisory Board of Current Neuropharmacology
  • Guest editor in Current Neuropharmacology
  • Member of the Editorial Board of Activitas Nervosa Superior

In the last year, I managed to take several emails with Prof Kosslyn. He asked questions about my model, and I tried to explain it him. At the end, he could understand my model and wrote me it is worthy to research. The main concern is that the cognitive scientists do not know molecular mechanisms, neurologist do not know biophysics, and so on. Thus, usually neuroscientist can not understand my new integrated model, which can consistently explain dozen visual phenomena. In reality, we proved by experiments that the retinal phosphenes can be biophotons. We will perform further experiments to prove that our brain can produce biophysical pictures in the retinotopic V1. I hope, neuroscientist can understand it once.

I deal with the natural biophysical substrate of visual perception and visual imagery. The main goal of my research is to prove that intrinsic pictures can be emerged by redox and biophoton processes in retinotopically organized neurons of visual areas during visual imagery, visual hallucination, and REM dream pictures within the brain.

Kosslyn`s reality simulation principle states that visual mental imagery mimics the corresponding events in the world. However, my concept of intrinsic biophysical visual virtual reality (by bioluminescent photons and iterative processes) in early retinotopic areas may be nothing else than the first possible biophysical basis of the reality simulation principle.

I hope that my researcher of biophysical picture representation can bring a brand new ways in the brain and cellular researchers, visual prosthesis, and artificial intelligence in the future. I can explain numerous brain related phenomena by biophysical picture representation model in a convergent manner (such as: phosphenes, negative afterimages, saccades, blind sight, visual imagery and perception, REM dream pictures, visual hallucination, autism, savant skill, some color illusions, synaesthesia, etc.

I do not claim to solve the secret of consciousness, but propose that the evolution in the higher levels of complexity made possible the emergence of intrinsic picture representation of the external visual world by regulated redox and bioluminescent biophotons in the visual system during visual perception and visual imagery.

Coming papers

  • Scholkmann, F., ….. Bókkon, I. Invited paper related to Retinal phosphenes Apr (2017) Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. Under preparation
  • Csázár N,… Bókkon I. (2017) Harmfull effects of mother-newborn separation: epigenetic implications. Under preparation

Published papers

  • Császár, N., Salari, V., Scholkmann, F., Kapócs, G., Bókkon, I. (2016) The “hidden observer” as the cognitive unconscious during hypnosis. Activitas Nervosa Superior In press
  • Kapócs, G, Scholkmann F, Salari V, Császár N, Szőke H, Bókkon I. (2016) Possible role of biochemiluminescent photons for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-induced phosphenes and visual hallucinations. Reviews in the Neurosciences doi: 10.1515/revneuro-2016-0047
  • Salari V, Bókkon I, Ghobadia R, Scholkmann F, Tuszynskih JA. (2016) Relationship between intelligence and spectral characteristics of brain biophoton emission: Correlation does not automatically imply causation. PNAS 113(38):E5540-1
  • Salari V., Scholkmann F., Shahbazi F., Bókkon I., Tuszynski J.. (2016) The Physical Mechanism for Retinal Discrete Dark Noise: Thermal Activation or Cellular Ultraweak Photon Emission? PloS One
  • Bókkon I. Scholkmann F, Salari V, Császár-Nagy N, Kapócs G. (2015) Endogenous spontaneous ultra-weak photon emission in the formation of eye-specific retinogeniculate projections before birth. Reviews in the Neurosciences DOI 10.1515/revneuro-2015-0051
  • Császár-Nagy N, Scholkmann F, Salari V, Szőke H, Bókkon I. (2015) Phosphene perception is due to the ultra-weak photon emission produced in various parts of the visual system: glutamate in the focus. Reviews in the Neurosciences DOI: 10.1515/revneuro-2015-0039
  • Vimal R.L.P., Bókkon, I., Vas J. P., Császár, N. Szőke H. (2015) Transgenerational epigenetic mechanisms, unconscious creativity, and sensory deprivation: semi-Free Will in extended dual-aspect monism framework. Quantum Biosystems 6, 33-53
  • Szőke H. Hegyi G. Császár, N. Vas J. P., Kapócs G. Bókkon, I. (2015) Agyi képalkotás, mint vizuális alapú kognitív modell. A visual based proto-consciousness model of human thinking. Ideggyógyászati Szemle / Clinical Neuroscience In press
  • Mehta R, Singh A, Bókkon I., Mallick B.M. (2015) REM sleep and its loss-associated epigenetic regulation with reference to noradrenalin in particular. Curr Neuropharmacol. In press
  • Salari V., Scholkmann F., Shahbazi F., Dai J., Bokkon I., Tuszynski J.. (2015) Comment on “Activation of Visual Pigments by Light and Heat”[Science 332, 1307-312 (2011)]
  • Bókkon, I., Vas J. P., Császár, N. (2014) Gondolatok a szabad akaratról az epigenetika, a transzgenerációs trauma átvitel és a tudattalan folyamatok tükrében Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle, Hungarian Review of Psychology 69. 4/8. 797–819.
  • Ashtari M, Cyckowski L, Yazdi A, Marshal K, Viands A, Bókkon I, Maguire A, Bennett J. (2014) ¬fMRI of Retinal Originated Phosphenes Experienced by Patients with Leber Congenital Amaurosis. PlOS One. 2014 Jan 21;9(1):e86068
  • Bókkon, I., Vas J. P., Császár, N., Lukács, T. (2014) Challenges to free will: transgenerational epigenetic information, unconscious processes and vanishing twin syndrome. Reviews in the Neurosciences. 25(1):163-175.
  • Bókkon I, Mallick BN, Tuszynski JA. (2013) Near death experiences: A multidisciplinary hypothesis. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7:533. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00533.
  • Bókkon I, Vimal RLP. (2013) Theoretical implications on (color) visual representation and cytochrome oxidase blobs. Activitas Nervosa Superior 55, 15-37
  • Bókkon I, Salari V, Scholkmann F, Dai J, Grass F. (2013) Interdisciplinary implications on autism, savantism, Asperger syndrome and the biophysical picture representation: Thinking in pictures. Cognitive Systems Research 22–23, 67–77.
  • Bókkon I, Mallick BN. (2012) Activation of retinotopic areas is central to REM sleep associated dreams: Visual dreams and visual imagery possibly co-emerged in evolution. Activitas Nervosa Superior 54, 10-25.
  • Bókkon I, Vimal RLP. (2012) Subliminal afterimages via ocular delayed luminescence: transsaccade stability of the visual perception and color illusion. Activitas Nervosa Superior 54, 49-59.
  • Bókkon I. (2012) Recognition of functional roles of free radicals. Curr Neuropharmacol. 10(4):287-288.
  • Bókkon I, Salari V. (2012) Brilliant lights by bioluminescent photons in near-death experiences. Medical Hypotheses 79, 47-49.
  • Bókkon I, Tuszynski J, Salari V. (2011) Biophysical visual virtual reality in retinotopic visual areas. European Biophysics Journal 40 (Suppl. 1) S67 Abstract.
  • Salari V, Tuszynski J, Bókkon I, Rahnama M Cifra M. (2011) On the Photonic Cellular Interaction and the Electric Activity of Neurons in the Human Brain. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 329 012006. (9th International Fröhlich’s Symposium, Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (EDALC11).
  • Bókkon I, Vimal RLP, Wang C, Dai J, Salari V, Grass F, Antal I. (2011) Visible light induced ocular delayed bioluminescence as a possible origin of negative afterimage. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biology. 103, 192–199.
  • Rahnama M, Tuszynski J, Bókkon I, Cifra M, Sardar P, Salari V. (2011) Emission of mitochondrial biophotons and their effect on electrical activity of membrane via microtubules. J Integr Neurosci. 10, 65-88.
  • Wang C, Bókkon I, Dai J, Antal I. (2011) Spontaneous and visible light-induced ultra-weak photon emission from rat eyes. Brain Res. 1369. 1-9.
  • Bókkon I, Salari V, Tuszynski J. (2011) Emergence of intrinsic representations of images by feedforward and feedback processes and bioluminescent photons in early retinotopic areas (Toward biophysical homunculus by an iterative model). J Integr Neurosci. 10, 47-64.
  • Bókkon I, Antal I. (2011) Schizophrenia: redox regulation and volume transmission. Current Neuropharmacology 9, 289-300.
  • Bókkon I, Tuszynski J, Salari V. (2011) Biophysical visual virtual reality in retinotopic visual areas. Nature Precedings
  • Bókkon I, Salari V, Tuszynski J, Antal I. (2010) Estimation of the number of biophotons involved in the visual perception of a single-object image: Biophoton intensity can be considerably higher inside cells than outside J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biology 100, 160-166.
  • Bókkon I, Vimal RLP. (2010). Implications on visual apperception: energy, duration, structure and synchronization. BioSystems 101, 1-9.
  • Bókkon I, Dai J, Antal I. (2010) Picture representation during REM dreams: A redox molecular hypothesis. BioSystems. 100, 79-86.
  • Banaclocha MA, Bókkon I, Banaclocha HM. (2010) Long-term memory in brain magnetite. Medical Hypotheses. 74, 254-257.
  • Bókkon I. Salari V. (2010) Information storing by biomagnetites. Journal of Biological Physics. 36, 109-120.